Antibiotics Classification and Their Respective Side Effects 

Antibiotics are powerful medicines or anti infective that are made from bacterial sources to eradicate bacterial invasion and infection form the human body. The word antibiotic in literal works means against life that is derived form Greek words. These are drugs that are formulated to destroy the invading bacteria or prevent their multiplication in order to control the infection. The antibiotics that are formulated to destroy or kill the bacteria are known as bactericidal and others that prevent the multiplication are known as bacteriostatic. These are divided in six groups depending on the spectrum of bacteria they act on, route of administration and mode of action.

1. Penicillins

These are the ancient form of antibiotics that are formed by human being in ancient times. This group of antibiotics is mainly made to kill or destroy the bacteria present in the body. In this group there are three types of penicillin that act on different type of bacteria. The first one or Penicillin G works on the gram-positive bacteria such as streptococcus and others. The second is Penicillinase which are the type of antibiotics that work even in the presence of fluid or enzyme secreted by bacterium to destroy the antibiotics or its effect. the third is broad specrum penicillin that is effective on wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

Side effects- this drug do not cause any serious kind of side effects but the main are loose motions or diarrhea, nausea, vomiting. In rare cases allergic skin eruptions are evident.

2. Cephalosporins

This class of antibiotics has similar modus operendi as that of penicillin but have different chemical structure. This difference makes these antibiotics effective against some different type and spectrum of bacteria on which penicillin is ineffective. These medicines are also bactericidal that kill the bacterium by invading his cell wall. This group of antibiotics also has wide range of types that work on specific spectrum of bacteria.

Side effects- the major side effects of cephalosporins is related to upper stomach that is stomach upset, vomiting, mild pain in the upper stomach and rare case of allergies.

3. Fluroquinolones

This is the latest member of antibiotics classification and is mostly used to treat urinary tract infections. These are also used nowadays to treat food poising or range of normal infections. The commonest drug of this type is ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin.

Side effects- these are often tolerated by the person and rarely cause allergic reactions on the body. Some also report of getting headache, dizziness and nausea after taking this class of antibiotics.

4. Tetracyclines

This member of classification of antibiotics have this name due to presence of four rings in it chemical structure. These mainly act on the protein synthesis of bacteria and thereby inhibit their multiplication. Common use is found in treatment of respiratory tract infection, sinus and others.

Side effects- regular use of this antibiotic may produce toxicity in the body that leads to dangerous effect that is kidney damage. It also induces burning in stomach along with cramps in abdomen.

The other remaining members of antibiotics classification are macrolides IUI pregnancy and other groups that are recently invented and used to treat wide array of bacterial infections.