The wound can be defined as a defect or back pain while sleeping a breakage in the skin that has resulted due to any mechanical, physical or thermal damage, or the one that has resulted because of the presence of any underlying physiological or medical disorder. Each wound is unique in its nature and type, thus different wound care guidelines have to be followed in healing different types of wounds. Wounds can be healed various techniques such as primary closure, open granulation, a delayed primary closure or by grafting and flap formation depending on their nature and type. But the basic cellular and biochemical procedures involved in most wound care plans to bring about the healing of wound are same.

Wounds may be superficial, which are generally caused due to friction by glancing or tangential contact of skin and a rough or a hard surface. Abrasions caused as such are merely superficial and are mostly limited to epidermis. Lacerations are wounds that are more severe than superficial wounds and involve epidermis as well as inner tissues. Penetrating wounds are even more serious that are caused by bullets, knives or due to some accidental injuries. Wounds caused by animal or human bites could be highly infectious due to the presence of pathogenic organisms. Wounds can also be caused due to burns and chemical injuries. Pressure ulcers caused due to repeated application of pressure over a bony projection could also turn into ulcerative wounds. Ulcerative wounds could also be caused due to certain systemic infections, radiotherapy, or some malignant diseases.

Different wound care guidelines have been formulated by clinicians treating patients with various types of wounds. The holistic examination of the patient is an indispensable part of the systematic wound care plan. Wherever necessary, a wound should be cleansed by irrigating it with a sterile normal saline that is warmed to body temperature. For cleansing longstanding wounds such as leg ulcers, ordinary tap water may be used. Frequent application of antiseptics should always be avoided as they are toxic to human skin and may delay the healing. Skin is sensitive to most antibiotics and hence should be used with caution. To the greatest possible extent, avoid heating or cooling the wound too much and maintain body temperature. Provide essential protection to the wound from external environment. Proper care must be taken in dressing a wound; maintaining a relatively moist environment at the dressing interface could be beneficial but a wet environment should always be avoided. Care must be taken so that no dressing gets stick to the wound and cause another wound while removing it. The wound caused due to a diabetic condition should not be covered completely and a proper facilitation should be made for frequent inspection.

Following an optimal nutrition plan can aid the faster healing of wound. Appropriate suggestions could also be received by consulting dieticians to promote a faster wound recovery, maintain immunity and also to lessen the degree of infection. Protein, Vitamin A, B complexes and C, Zinc, Copper and Iron are needed for wound healing. Apart from malnutrition, dehydration and increased age; stress and lack of proper sleep could slow down the rate of wound healing!